- INTRODUCTION■ The chief problem in compiling a bibliography on Marxism is the sheer volume of sources. The literature produced by and about Marxists, Marxist organizations, movements and regimes is vast. This abundance of material testifies to the immense spread and influence of Marxism. The list of Marxist parties and organizations around the world is extensive—some 80 listed in this dictionary.■ The list of Marxist regimes is also lengthy. In the 1970s and 1980s there were, at any given time, two dozen or more Marxist states in the world. These included: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Benin, Bulgaria, China, Congo, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, Hungary, Kampuchea, Laos, Mongolia, Mozambique, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Somalia, the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Yemen, and Yugoslavia. In China and the Soviet Union Marxist regimes governed two of the most populated countries in the world and, at the time, two of the world’s three superpowers.■ Huge though the literature is on Marxist political organizations and governments, there is, if anything, even more that has been written on Marxist ideas. As well as a revolutionary activist Marx was a great thinker and theorist and this is reflected in the number of publications devoted to explaining, analyzing, criticizing, advocating, extending and revising his ideas. The use of Marxist ideas has spread well beyond the field of politics to not just the more predictable areas of sociology, economics, history and philosophy—areas in which Marx himself wrote significant works—but also to such diverse fields as psychology, anthropology, ecology, geography and even media studies. The following bibliography aims to reflect both the influence of Marxism on political movements and regimes around the world, and the diversity of subjects and disciplines to which Marxist ideas and perspectives have been applied.■ The vastness and the diversity of literature on Marxism make it difficult to generalize about, particularly with regard to its strengths and weaknesses. It is difficult to think of any topic, let alone one of significance, that has not been addressed in the literature on Marxism or from a Marxist perspective (however variable the quality of work may have sometimes been). Any significant Marxists, Marxist movements or governments, concepts or events have been covered. Omissions tend to be of the order of such topics as Tuva, the third country in the world to gain a Marxist government (after Russia, into which it was absorbed, and Mongolia). Tuva has achieved a very small renown for its throat singers, but otherwise has, understandably, not attracted the attention of scholars. The enormous breadth of Marxism related literature might in itself be considered a strength: Marxism has clearly inspired work in a vast number of domains and across a wide range of disciplines. A further strength of Marxism, at least for the English speaker, is the amount of material on Marxism available in English. Not only have all the works of Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels been authoritatively translated into English, but so also have the nonEnglish-language works of legions of other Marxists and writers on Marxism. So, for example, we have the works of Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Josef Stalin, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Ernesto Guevara, Amilcar Cabral, Rosa Luxemburg, and Eduard Bernstein readily available in English to name but a few notable Marxists from around the world. This, of course, is in no small measure due to the efforts of the Soviet Union and Marxist China to promote Marxism by funding translation and foreign language publication of works by “approved” Marxists (the Soviet Union notably did not fund translations of Trotsky’s works). There are still a few interesting and significant sources not available in English translation, for example some Latin American writings in Spanish, but there are no gaping holes in the work available. Overall, as James C. Doherty suggests in his Historical Dictionary of Socialism, the Marxist tradition has been well served by the scholarly literature, particularly when compared with the democratic socialist tradition.■ Given the immense literature on Marxism this bibliography is inevitably selective. Three considerations in the selection process have been whether or not a book has been of great significance or lasting influence; whether or not a book covers a topic not covered elsewhere; and how up-to-date a book is. So, the aim has been to choose the best recently published books on Marxism, but also to include any books that have been important in the history of Marxism or that have had a significant impact or significance. For example, Franz Mehring’s biography of Marx, Karl Marx, was first published in 1918 and is now dated, but has been included as, in David McLellan’s words “the classical biography of Marx.” A further example is M.M. Bober’s Karl Marx’s Interpretation of History, first published in 1927, but included as a landmark study of historical materialism which is still a useful read. Others, such as Massimo Quaini’s Geography and Marxism, or Maurice Godelier’s Perspectives in Marxist Anthropology, have been included partly because they cover more unusual and less discussed aspects of Marxist thought.■ Other selection criteria concern non-English sources and journal articles. A difficult decision had to be made to exclude articles. To have included articles would have easily led to a tripling in length of the bibliography. In defense of the decision, it should be noted that many key articles can be found collected into books (for example, the excellent Marx, Justice and History edited by M. Cohen et al. is largely a collection of articles first published in the journal Philosophy and Public Affairs, and Bob Jessop’s Karl Marx: Social and Political Thought, Critical Assessments volumes contain an impressive number of highquality, significant and stimulating articles from various sources), and other bibliographical sources that will direct the reader to relevant articles have been included. In addition, a list of journals containing many important articles on Marxism is included below. Non-English sources have by and large been ignored as there is a wealth of sources in English including excellent translations of a great number of texts written in other languages. The few foreign language sources included have largely been selected on the basis that they are both significant works and not yet available in English translation (for example, José Mariategui’s Historia de la Crisis Mundial). In addition to these, the Germanlanguage editions of the principal writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and important German-language selections and collections have been included for those who wish to study the works of the founders of Marxism in the language in which they were written.■ The starting point of the bibliography is the starting point of Marxism: Karl Marx himself and his close collaborator Friedrich Engels. In addition to sources containing their actual writings, notable biographies and secondary sources on them are listed. This is followed by a selection of the best introductions to Marxism and Marxist ideas, and some sources on the key influences on Marx’s thought. The bibliography then moves on to Marxism around the world. Marxism is an ideology that has influenced individuals, movements and regimes all over the globe, and the cultures and politics of different regions have, in turn, influenced and shaped Marxist ideas. For example, the Marxisms that have developed in Asia are significantly different in character and content to those found in Europe. The six areas identified—Europe, the Soviet Union, Asia, Latin America, Africa and North America—cover most of the planet, and in each one there have arisen significant Marxist movements, regimes and/or schools of thought. Each region has, where appropriate, been sub-divided into sections covering smaller areas or individual countries, key thinkers and schools of thought, leading Marxists and Marxist leaders, and themes of particular significance to the region. The final part of the bibliography concerns subjects and issues found in the literature on and debates within Marxism. Aselection of literature on Marxist philosophy and theory is provided here with specific topics such as aesthetics and culture, justice and ethics, feminism, nationalism, imperialism and international communism all focused on in sub-sections. The first section covers Marx and Engels, the founders of Marxism. It contains their writings, biographies on them and secondary sources on aspects of their lives, work and relationship. In terms of their writings, the co-authored Communist Manifesto is the best and most accessible place to start. Another relatively straightforward piece on Marx’s central theory is the Preface to a Critique of Political Economy. This is a brief and clear schematic summary of Marx’s materialist conception of history (historical materialism). The German Ideology (co-authored with Engels) goes into the materialist conception in more detail and with greater philosophical depth, but remains reasonably lucid. On Marx’s theory of alienation the key text is his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (also known as the 1844 Manuscripts and as the Paris Manuscripts). On economics and the workings of capitalism Marx’s great work is of course Capital, with volume one particularly important. While of enormous importance, Capital can also be a little daunting, and those wishing to grasp the key ideas without working their way through Capital should read Marx’s Value, Price and Profit (also published asWages, Price and Profit), a much briefer and very clear exposition of his views intended for trade unionists of the time. Other significant writings include the Theses on Feuerbach, which is a terse, slightly enigmatic set of theses containing the essence of Marx’s materialist philosophy and the basis for his historical materialism—a key text, considered a turning point in Marx’s intellectual development by many commentators. The Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right is a difficult text, but shows Marx working out his position in relation to G.W.F. Hegel and Hegelianism. On the Jewish Question, again not an easy text, conveys criticisms by Marx of liberalism, while The Poverty of Philosophy is an attack on Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, particularly for his ahistorical views, and provides more on Marx’s materialist conception of history. Of his other writings (and there are many) the most important are The Class Struggles in France, The Eighteenth Brumaire and The Civil War in France, which all represent Marx’s analyses of specific historical events, that is, the application of his theories to contemporary happenings (France 1848–49; Louis Bonaparte’s seizure of power in France in 1851; 1871 Paris Commune). Finally, the Grundrisse, a difficult piece, nevertheless warrants a mention both as the groundwork for Marx’s Capital and as a key text linking his early and later works and incorporating important dialectical themes.■ Engels also wrote prolifically and his key solo writings are The Condition of the Working Class in England, Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany, Anti-Dühring (an easier very abridged version was published as Socialism: Utopian and Scientific), Dialectics of Nature, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, and Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy. In general Engels’ works are more accessible than Marx’s, though he has been criticized for oversimplifying Marx’s ideas and in so doing distorting them. Engels wrote particularly on philosophy and spent much time outlining materialist philosophy and contrasting it with idealist philosophy. The Collected Works of Marx and Engels published by Lawrence and Wishart is a reliable and near comprehensive English translation of their works, while the Historisch-kritische Gesamtausgabe. Werke/Schriften/Briefe. (MEGA1) and Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe (MEGA2) are authoritative collections in German. Of the selections of writings of Marx and Engels there are a number of good books with David McLellan’s Karl Marx: Selected Works a particularly fine example, and Eugene Kamenka’s Portable Marx, Jon Elster’s Karl Marx: A Reader, and Christopher Pierson’s The Marx Reader of a similarly high quality and usefulness for readers seeking the key texts and main ideas of Marx. Joseph O’Malley’s Marx: Early Political Writings and Terrell Carver’s Marx: Later Political Writings are very good selections of pre- and post-1848 writings respectively. Two reliable and widely used multi-volume collections are Saul Padover’s Karl Marx Library (seven volumes) and the Penguin eight-volume collection. These highlighted selections and collections of Marx and Engels’ writings are but a few of the considerable number that have been published, more being listed below. Some are helpfully focused on specific themes or areas of Marx’s/Engels’ thought, for example, religion and colonialism. David McLellan’s Marx and Terrell Carver’s Engels provide the best brief introductions to the lives and main ideas of Marx and Engels respectively. McLellan’s Karl Marx: His Life and Thought is an extremely good, thorough and detailed intellectual biography. Francis Wheen’s Karl Marx is the most interesting and readable of the very many biographies of Marx, bringing out Marx as a real person and not just an icon. Carver’s longer biography of Engels, Friedrich Engels: His Life and Thought, is the best so far on Marx’s vital collaborator. Carver is also to be recommended for his book Marx and Engels: The Intellectual Relationship.■ The second section contains some of the best introductions to Marx, Marxism and Marxist ideas. As so often McLellan stands out for the clarity and authority of his writing. His The Thought of Karl Marx cannot be bettered as an introduction to Marx’s ideas and contains very useful extracts from Marx’s writings on each key topic. Mike Evans’ Karl Marx provides an excellent and more detailed introduction with particular focus on Marx’s views on politics and history.■ The third section of the bibliography concerns the influences on Marx’s (and Engels’) thought. The crucial thinker here is Georg Hegel. Marx counted himself a disciple of Hegel for a while and even late in his intellectual development acknowledged the influence of Hegel. An excellent, extremely clear and brief introduction to Hegel’s thought is to be found in Peter Singer’s Hegel. Shlomo Avineri’s Hegel’s Theory of the Modern State is the best account of Hegel’s political views, while Chris Arthur’s scholarly Dialectic of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel is strong on the intellectual relationship between Marx and Hegel.■ The following sections address Marxism in different parts of the world: Europe, the Soviet Union/Russia, Asia, Latin America, Africa and North America. Europe, as well as the birth and dwelling place of Marx, has also been home to many of the most influential and penetrating of Marxist thinkers and a number of important Marxist movements. As such it has generated a wealth of material on and by Marxists. From the range of sources it is difficult to select particularly outstanding works. However, in the section on early European Marxism Peter Gay’s The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism, Norman Geras’ The Legacy of Rosa Luxemburg and Jeremy Jennings’ Georges Sorel: The Character and Development of His Thought are seminal works on their respective subjects. On Western Marxism and Marxists Perry Anderson’s Considerations on Western Marxism, Russell Jacoby’s Dialectic of Defeat, David Held’s Introduction to Critical Theory, Joseph Femia’s Gramsci’s Political Thought, Vincent Geoghegan’s Reason and Eros: The Social Theory of Herbert Marcuse, and G. Parkinson’s edited book Georg Lukacs: The Man, His Work and His Ideas are all particularly recommended. On Eurocommunism R. Kindersley’s The Communist Movement: From Comintern to Cominform is worth reading, and M. Rakovski’s Toward an East European Marxism is particularly interesting on East European Marxism.■ On the Soviet Union and Russian Marxism, as one would expect, there is again a wealth of material, and merely a few of the classic works are highlighted here: Robert Conquest’s The Great Terror: Stalin’s Purge of the Thirties, Isaac Deutscher’s trilogy on Trotsky, Stephen Cohen’s Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution, and, if not quite classics then probably the most reliable and authoritative sources, Neil Harding’s books on Lenin. Asian Marxism is dominated by sources on Chinese Marxism and of these Bill Brugger, Stuart Schram and Dick Wilson are important and profound authors, while on Latin American Marxism and African Marxism Harry Vanden and Basil Davidson are the vital authors to consult on each area respectively. On Marxism in the United States Albert Fried’s Communism in America: A History in Documents contains both a good selection of source material and a useful bibliographical essay.■ The Subjects and Issues section represents another huge area of Marxist writings. In this final section of the bibliography a very wide range of topics is covered including philosophy, theory, economics, science, the arts, religion, ethics, crime, feminism, and nationalism. This area is too extensive to give detailed guidance on so only a few of the long-standing books and authors that have made major contributions to the study of Marxism and to Marxist studies are mentioned here. M. M. Bober’s Karl Marx’s Interpretation of History is the oldest extended consideration of historical materialism in English, and remains a useful and insightful critical study. Milovan Djilas’ The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System is a penetrating, critical analysis of communism in practice. Gerry Cohen’s Marx’s Theory of History: A Defence is a landmark work on historical materialism by one of the foremost political theorists of the 20th century. Alvin Gouldner’s The Two Marxisms deserves a wide audience for its clarity and insight into an inherent tension between science and philosophy running throughout Marxist thought and movements. Leszek Kolakowski’s Main Currents of Marxism: Its Origin, Growth and Dissolution is an impressive, insightful and influential work on the history and development of Marxism. Bertell Ollman’s Alienation is a brilliant and original study of Marx’s dialectical approach and theory of alienation. John Plamenatz’s German Marxism and Russian Communism contains a superb discussion of historical materialism by a leading political theorist. Listed in the miscellaneous section is Robert A. Gorman’s extremely useful and extensive pair of bibliographical volumes featuring numerous Marxists and neo-Marxists. Finally, it is worth noting the contributions of Maurice Dobb, Paul Sweezy and Ernest Mandel on economics, and those of Terry Eagleton, Frederic Jameson and Raymond Williams on literature and culture.■ Further bibliographical sources are listed here. Of these, David McLellan’s Karl Marx: Selected Writings contains a very useful selection of sources with brief comments on each, and A Dictionary of Marxist Thought edited by Tom Bottomore et al. has quite an extensive bibliography. More specific in subject matter are the Hoover Institution’s publications from the late 1960s and early 1970s including Anna Bourguina’s Russian Social Democracy: The Menshevik Movement Bibliography, R. H. McNeal’s Stalin’s Works: An Annotated Bibliography, Sydney Heitman’s Nikolai I. Bukharin: A Bibliography with Annotations, and Louis Sinclair’s Leon Trotsky: A Bibliography. Other bibliographies listed are Jaddish S. Sharma’s Indian Socialism: A Descriptive Bibliography, Harry E. Vanden’s Latin American Marxism: A Bibliography, Dione Miles’ Something in Common: An IWW Bibliography, and Maurice F. Neufeld, Daniel J. Leab and Dorothy Swanson’s American Working Class History: A Representative Bibliography. In addition, on Chinese Marxism Bill Brugger and David Kelly’s Chinese Marxism in the Post-Mao Era and Mark Selden’s China in Revolution: The Yenan Way Revisited together provide a wide-ranging list of sources including a number of Chinese and Japanese language sources. Other useful reference sources include the informative, albeit dated, Bogdan Szajkowski’s Marxist Governments: A World Survey and the previously mentioned Historical Dictionary of Socialism by James C. Doherty. In addition, the internet is now a valuable research resource and there is a large number of websites devoted to Marxism and Marxist groups. However, many of these belong to small Marxist parties and are of very limited interest. Rather than list them all the selection below contains the most useful ones in terms of content and links to other websites:■ • Fourth International Links: http://www.zoo.co.uk/Bibliographyz8001063/InternationalSocialist-Group/F1/F1%20Links.htm (very good for links to Trotskyist organizations)■ • Hegel Society of America: http://www.hegel.org/ (good for links to other websites on Hegel)■ • Hegel Society of Great Britain: http://www.shef.ac.uk/misc/groups/hsgb/index.html (good for links to other websites on Hegel)■ • In Defence of Marxism: http://www.marxist.com/ (very good links to Marxist groups’ websites world wide)■ • Industrial Workers of the World: http://iww.org■ • Marx and Engels’Writings: http://eserver.org/marx/ (good for Marx and Engels’ writings)■ • Marxism Made Simple: http://flash.to/marxismmadesimple/■ • Marxism Page: http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/rd_star.gif■ • Marxist.Org Internet Archive: http://www.marx.org/archive/index.htm (especially useful for writings of important Marxists and includes an encyclopedia of Marxism)■ • The MarX-Files: http://www.appstate.edu/Bibliographystanovskydj/marxfiles.html (good for Marxist writings)
Historical dictionary of Marxism. David Walker and Daniel Gray . 2014.